Summary & References


Reading fluency, or the ability to read expressively at a good pace that promotes understanding, represents the culmination of many of the reading skills discussed in previous units: phonemic awareness, phonics, and structural analysis. In that sense, it can be thought of as a goal of reading instruction generally. But instruction on fluency works two ways—in addition to helping students further develop decoding skills, it also helps them improve reading comprehension.


Breznitz, Z. (2006). Fluency in reading: Synchronization of processes. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Kuhn, M.R., & Schwanenflugel, P. J. (2019). Prosody, pacing, and situational fluency (or why fluency matters for older readers). Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 62(4), 363– 368.

O’Reilly, T., Wang, Z., & Sabatini, J. (2019). How much knowledge Is too little? when a lack of knowledge becomes a barrier to comprehension. Psychological Science, 30(9), 1344–1351.

Sabatini, J., Wang, Z., & O’Reilly, T. (2019). Relating reading comprehension to oral reading performance in the NAEP fourth‐grade special study of oral reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 54(2), 253– 271.